The WorldFish Center Quarterly
Vol.27, No. 1&2 (January - June 2004)

Community-based marine protected areas in the Bohol (Mindanao) Sea, Philippines
J.D. Indab and P.B. Suarez-Aspilla

This paper discusses the status, direction and management issues in the marine protected areas (MPAs) of the Bohol (Mindanao) Sea, Philippines. The MPAs in the study area have increased through the years. Many of them were established and managed by the local government units (LGUs) in collaboration with national government agencies (NGAs), academic institutions, people’s and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Several management issues and problems were cited by the MPA managers such as insuffi cient funds and facilities, lack of support from NGAs/NGOs and lack of education among the people. Nevertheless, lessons for sustainability can be learned from the experience of some wellmanaged MPAs in the Bohol Sea. These include strong support from the political leadership, community participation and networking among the concerned sectors. Although the best practices are being followed in a number of MPAs in the Bohol Sea, success is still fragmented. The MPAs are currently managed independently although there are ongoing initiatives to network their efforts. However, it can be observed that, as a management tool, MPAs are gaining popularity and support, not only among the fisherfolk but also among local communities and LGUs in the Bohol Sea area.

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Length-weight relationships of commercially important marine fishes and shellfishes of the Southern Coast of Karnataka, India
K.P. Abdurahiman, T. Harishnayak and P.U. Zacharia and K.S. Mohamed

The parameters of the length-weight relationship of the form W = aLb are presented for 51 species of commercially important marine fi shes and shellfishes caught along the southern coast of Karnataka, India. Samples from commercial (trawl, purse seines, gill nets) and artisanal gears were taken during August 1999 to May 2001. The ‘b’ value ranged between 1.942 and 3.616 with a mean of 2.80, standard deviation of 0.32, and mode of 3.

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Corals, fishermen and tourists
A. Kunzmann

Two major anthropogenic activities that disturb coral reefs are fishing and tourism, even though coral reefs are important for both fishing and tourism. Already more than 60 per cent of all reefs worldwide are endangered. The use of explosives and poison by small-scale fishers, to supply the market for live fish for aquariums and for human consumption, cause irreversible damages to reefs. Similarly, rapid and unmanaged coastal development for marine tourism negatively affects coral reefs in many ways. Though marine parks and marine protected areas are being promoted all over the world, developing countries need assistance in establishing and assessing such reserves and for taking appropriate actions for rehabilitation of reefs. These can be accomplished through partnership projects.

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Length-weight relationships of marine fishes from the central Brazilian coast
L.O. Frota, P.A.S. Costa and A.C. Braga

Parameters of the length-weight relationship are presented for 85 fish species from the marine and estuarine regions of the central Brazilian coast (latitude 13° to 23° S). Three different methods were used. A non-linear iterative process using the quasi-Newton algorithm yielded a better fit for all data sets analyzed. The length-weight allometry coefficient b estimated from standard length data tended to be lower than from total length data. The difference between these estimates was significant for some species.

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Use of a fishery independant index to predict recruitment and catches of the spiny lobster
R. Cruz and R. Adriano

This paper presents a review of recruitment and catch predictions based on an index of abundance of juveniles and pre-recruits (fishery independent index) in the Cuban lobster fisheries. This methodology can provide information based on fisheries data that can improve the management of the fishery.

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Indicators for management of coral reefs and their applications to marine protected areas
M.C.A. Ablan, J.W. McManus and K. Viswanathan

Informed planning and decision-making in the management of natural resources requires an ability to integrate complex interactions in ecosystems and communicate these effectively to stakeholders. This involves coping with three fundamental dilemmas. The first comes from the irregular pulse of nature. The second is the recognition that there are no strictly objective criteria for judging the “well-being” of an ecosystem. The third is posed by the quest for indicators with some integrative properties that may be used to analyze an ecosystem and impart the information to the relevant resource users. This paper presents some examples of indicators used to: 1) assess the status of a coral reef and, in particular, the state of its fisheries resources; 2) identify reefs that are most threatened by human activities; and 3) evaluate the likelihood of success of management interventions. These indicators are not exhaustive, but illustrate the range of options available for the management of coral reef ecosystems.

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Catching and rearing postlarval cleaner shrimp for the aquarium trade: results from a WorldFish Center project in the Solomon Islands
C. Hair, R. Warren, A. Tewaki, C. Haro and W. Phillips

Between 1999 and 2003, the WorldFish Center in Solomon Islands conducted research into the feasibility of a new fishery based on the capture and culture of postlarval coral reef fish for the live fish trade. The work was carried out in two phases: a research phase from late 1999 to the end of 2002; and a “finetuning” phase in 2003. Most of the species were of value to the marine aquarium trade, with very few live reef food fi sh recorded. The most valuable ornamentals were the banded cleaner shrimp, Stenopus species. Cleaner shrimp were harvested using crest nets, the method being modified with the addition of a solid, water-retaining cod-end designed to increase survival at capture. Grow-out techniques were improved by rearing the shrimp separately in jars to prevent aggression. The jars were painted black to protect the shrimp from sunlight. An economic model using experimental catch data and farm gate prices indicates that the fishery based on shrimp, supplemented with small numbers of lobster and fish is economically viable. The next step will be setting up a demonstration farm in a village in the Western Province of Solomon Islands.

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A global protocol for monitoring of coral bleaching
J. Oliver, N. Setiasih, P. Marshall and L. Hansen

Coral bleaching and subsequent mortality represent a major threat to the future health and productivity of coral reefs. However a lack of reliable data on occurrence, severity and other characteristics of bleaching events hampers research on the causes and consequences of this important phenomenon. This article describes a global protocol for monitoring coral bleaching events, which addresses this problem and can be used by people with different levels of expertise and resources.

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Use of enriched live prey in promoting growth and maturation of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Annita Yong Seok Kian, Saleem Mustafa and Ridzwan A. Rahman

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of nutritional management of broodstock of Penaeus monodon on growth and maturation. Test specimens were obtained from a grow-out pond before attainment of maturity and were reared in hatchery tanks. Four types of dietary treatments (M1–M4) were given to separate batches that were run in duplicate. Feeding trials continued for five months. A diet with live bloodworm, bioencapsulated to contain tricalcic phosphate as its major component, was found to be the most efficient. Specimens of this particular batch assimilated food more efficiently, grew at a faster rate and attained maturity earlier than other groups. Bloodworm provided the lipid fractions for which there is no de novo synthesis in shrimp. The enrichment product acted by promoting somatic growth and increasing transfer of biochemical constituents needed by the ovary for development.

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Feasibility of fisheries co-management in Africa
A.S. Khan, H. Mikkola and R. Brummett

The current, highly centralized approach to fisheries management seems to be incapable of coping with escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation. Co-management has been identified as an alternative. This paper compares various approaches to fisheries management and discusses their performance in relation to the nature of the fishery. It is concluded that in African fisheries, stringent institutional arrangements, poor human, technical and financial resources, and a limited time frame often thwart co-management approaches. However, with the right conditions and prerequisites, comanagement can be successful in improving compliance with regulations and maintaining or enhancing the quality of the resource. The paper brings out the issues that require further research.

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High level of hybridisation in three species of Indian major carps
V. Simonsen, M.M. Hansen, Md. R.I. Sarder and Md. S. Alam

Thirty individuals of each species of Indian major carps, i.e., Catla catla, Cirrhinus cirrhosus (C. mrigala) and Labeo rohita, obtained from a nursery near Mymensingh, Bangladesh were analysed by means of allozyme electrophoresis. Twenty-one loci were studied. Several loci revealed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations caused by deficiency of heterozygotes, indicating Wahlund effects due to problems with species identification. Moreover, bimodal distributions of individual heterozygosity within the three putative species indicated hybridisation. This was confirmed using analysis of individual admixture proportions, as individuals misidentified to species and hybrids between species were observed. Furthermore, factorial correspondence analysis to visualize genetic relationships among individuals revealed three distinct groups containing misclassified individuals, along with some intermediate individuals interpreted as hybrids. Ten per cent of all C. catla and L. rohita had been erroneously identified to species, and 40 per cent of all presumptive C. catla were hybrids between C. catla x C. cirrhosus and C. catla x L. rohita. In the case of C. cirrhosus, 37 per cent of the samples were C. cirrhosus x L. rohita hybrids. Thirty per cent of all presumptive L. rohita turned out to be hybrids between L. rohita x C. catla and L. rohita x C. cirrhosus. The high incidence of hybrids in C. catla might be responsible for slower growth of the fish in aquaculture.

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