* ICLARM is now known as WorldFish Center

Naga - The *ICLARM Quarterly
Vol. 23, No. 1 (January - March 2000)

Integrating Fish and Azolla into Rice-Duck Farming in Asia
A.G. Cagauan, R.D. Branckaert and C. Van Hove

Several countries in Asia practice integrated rice-duck farming. On-farm resources such as duck manure and feed waste are not adequately used and recycled in the system. This indicates the potential for research to increase the productivity of the rice-duck system. The integration of fish and the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern azolla show promise for increasing the production potential of the system. Fish, azolla and ducks integrated with rice farming can result in nutrient enhancement, pest control, feed supplementation and biological control. Some of the results of a case study on integrated rice-fish-azolla-duck farming systems conducted in the Philippines are presented in this paper.

A.C. Cagauan is from the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and is presently a Research Fellow supported by the International Development Cooperation, Catholic University of Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; R.D. Branckaert is from the Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy (e-mail:; C. Van Hove is from the Unit of Plant Biology, Catholic University of Louvan (e-mail:

Floating Islands: a Unique Fish Aggregating Method
V.R. Suresh

A fish aggregating device made of aquatic weeds and grass (Phoom) is used in Loktak lake in the northeastern region of India. It has been used successfully in this very productive fishery for centuries. Today, the fishery itself is under pressure from overexploitation, soil erosion leading to siltation and a hydroelectric project that has blocked the migratory route of the fish that used the lake as a breeding ground.

V.R. Suresh is from the ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region, Manipur Centre, Imphal - 795 004, India. 

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