The WorldFish Center Quarterly
Vol. 25, No. 3&4 (July – December 2002)

Meso-scale Transboundary Units for the Management of Coral Reefs in the South China Sea Area
M.C.A. Ablan, J.W. McManus, C.A. Chen, K.T. Shao, J. Bell, A.S. Cabanban, V.S. Tuan and I.W. Arthana

Local communities and local government units are recognized as the primary stakeholders and participants in the management of coral reef resources and the primary beneficiaries of small-scale fishing activities in the nearshore areas of the coastal zone. The issues relating to the management of the coastal zone are multi-faceted and some issues are largely intertwined with national policy and development goals. Thus, national governments have jurisdiction over these nearshore coastal resources to harmonize policies, monitor resource use and provide incentives for sustainable use. However, the natural boundaries of these reef resources, the processes that support reef ecosystems, and the local or national affiliation of the people who benefit from them may transcend the boundaries of the local and national management units. Therefore, efforts to arrest the decline in fish catch and loss of biodiversity for reefs require management interventions and assessment activities to be carried out at varying scales. In Southeast Asia, some aspects of reef and reef resources management — particularly in deciding the allocation of catch among competing fisheries, development of sustainable harvest strategies, use of broodstock for restocking or stock enhancement programs, protection of nursery and spawning areas, designation of systems of marine protected areas, and the identification of representative, adequate and comprehensive areas for biodiversity conservation in the region — may require the definition of larger management units. At the regional level, multi-country initiatives will need to define units for the transboundary management of resources. The use of large marine ecosystems (LMEs) to identify and manage fisheries resources may be a starting point; however, given the relatively sedentary nature of coral reef-dwelling and reef-associated organisms compared with other pelagic and demersal species, meso-scale transboundary units within the LMEs have to be defined. This paper provides suggestions for transboundary management units for coral reef and reef-associated resources in Southeast Asia based on information from genetic structures of model organisms in the region. In addition, specific reef areas are identified, which may be important beyond their national boundaries, as potential sources of recruits.

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Aquaculture in Jamaica
K.A. Aiken, D. Morris, F.C. Hanley and R. Manning

Jamaica, with its overfished marine resources, has become a major tilapia producer in Latin America led by a small number of large farms practicing tilapia culture with considerable commercial success. Across the country, however, aquaculture is typically practiced by a large number of small-scale fish farmers who own less than 1.0 ha of land. Production is constrained by lack of credit, finite land space and suitable soil type, but larger existing aquaculturists are expanding further for overseas markets. Inspired by pioneering tilapia fish culture demonstration projects funded by the USAID and the government of Jamaica, fish culture production rose from a few hundred kg of Oreochromis niloticus in 1977, to about 5 000 t of processed fish mainly red hybrid tilapia, in 2000. Most of this quantity was exported to Europe and North America.

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Integration of Freshwater Prawn Culture with Rice Farming in Kuttanad, India
B. M. Kurup and K. Ranjeet

The integration of paddy cultivation with prawn/fish culture can become a viable alternative to effectively utilize the vast area of derelict polders (embanked coastal flood plains) in Kuttanad, India. Nearly 55 000 ha of wetlands in Kuttanad are available for paddy cultivation year-round. Around 5 000 ha of the polders are utilized for Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture as a follow-up crop. Of the total area, about 250 ha of fallow polders are utilized for monoculture of M. rosenbergii from March to October, while in 4 750 ha polyculture with Indian and exotic carps is practiced from November to June. Stocking density is 15 000 to 60 000/ha for monoculture of M. rosenbergii, while in polyculture with carps, it is 5 000 to 20 000/ha of prawn and 5 000 to 10 000/ha of fish. Production from monoculture varies from 95 to 1 297 kg/ha whereas production from polyculture systems it is 70 to 500 kg/ha of prawn and 200 - 1 200 kg/ha of fish. Profits range from Rs. 5 000 to 20 000/ha. An evaluation is made of how the present polders of Kuttanad are best utilized for culture of M. rosenbergii following different systems of integrated farming and how the integration is useful in the aquaculture sustainability of Kuttanad, a tropical wetland ecosystem.

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Length-weight Relationship of Mudskippers (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae) in the Coastal Areas of Selangor, Malaysia
M.Z. Khaironizam and Y. Norma-Rashid

Parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship (LWR) were estimated for eleven species of mudskippers caught in the coastal areas of Selangor, Malaysia. The values of b ranged from 2.56 to 3.50 with the mean b equal to 2.95 (n=11; sd=0.302). A normal distribution of the calculated LWR exponent (b) was obtained.

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Diet Composition of Fish Species from the Southern Continental Shelf of Colombia
R.H. López-z-Peralta and C.A.T Arcila

The diet composition of 30 fish species belonging to 16 families from the Pacific Coast of Colombia is described. Benthic crustaceans (37.5%) and bony fishes (23.7%, chiefly demersal) were the most important food items for the fish species analyzed. Data on diet composition of the fish species are presented for the first time which can be a source of information for trophic modeling.

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Fisheries of the Farasan Islands (Red Sea)
W. Gladstone

The fisheries of the Farasan Islands (Saudi Arabia, Red Sea) are described. The fishery resources are exploited by artisanal, investor and industrial sectors. The artisanal fishery consists mostly of line fishing around coral reefs and about half the fishing effort occurs within the proposed marine protected area (MPA). Activities by investor and industrial fisheries sector include line fishing, gill netting, fish trapping and demersal fish trawling. The relevant resource management issues that need to be addressed as part of a planning study for the establishment of a MPA are also presented. The major issues are: (1) the decline in the catch of the artisanal fishery; (2) by catch and habitat degradation; (3) sustainability in the collection of giant clams and pearl shells; and (4) the lack of information such as the importance of MPA to fisheries, stock assessment and catch and effort data. A significant role in the future management of the fisheries has been identified for the traditional representatives of the artisanal sector.

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African Freshwater Fisheries: What Needs to be Managed?
E. Jul-Larsen and P. van Zwieten

The management of African freshwater fisheries in Southern African Development Coordination (SADC) countries is discussed. Changes in catch and fishing effort in the SADC freshwater fisheries in the past 50 years, the main causes behind the patterns of change in fishing effort, the effects of fishing effort and environment on the regeneration of fish stocks, as well as existing and proposed fisheries management regulations are investigated.

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